The abyssal depths of the polar oceans are thought to be low in diversity compared with the shallower polar shelves and temperate and tropical deep-sea basins. Our recent study on the gastropod fauna of the deep Southern Ocean gives evidence of the existence of a rich gastropod assemblage at abyssal depths. During the ANDEEP I and II expeditions to the southern Drake Passage, Northwestern Weddell Sea, and South Sandwich Trench, gastropods were collected by bottom and Agassiz trawls, epibenthic sledge, and multicorer, at 40 stations in depths between 127 and 5194m. On the whole, 473 specimens, corresponding to 93 species of 36 families, were obtained. Of those, 414 specimens were caught below 750m depth and refer to 84 (90%) benthic species of 32 (89%) families. Most families were represented by a single species only. The numerically dominant families were Skeneidac and Buccinidae (with 10 and I I species, respectively), Eulimidae and Trochidae (with 9 species each), and Turridae (6 species). Thirty-Seven benthic deep-sea species (44%) were represented by a single specimen, and another 20 species (24%) were found at a single station, suggesting that more than two thirds of Antarctic deep-sea gastropod species are very rare or have a very scattered distribution. Of the 27 species occurring at two or more deep-sea stations, 14 were collected with different gear. Approximately half of the deep-water species are new to science or have been recently described. The present investigation increases the total number of recorded benthic Antarctic deep-sea gastropods (below 750m) from 115 to 177. The previously known depth ranges have been extended, often considerably, for 31 species. The collected deep-sea gastropods comprise both eurybathic shelf species (29%) and apparently true deep-sea species (58%); some of the latter may belong to a so far unknown Antarctic abyssal fauna. Geographical ranges of the collected Antarctic benthic deep-sea gastropod species appear limited, and all these 84 species seem endemic to Antarctica south of the Polar Front. Comparing diversity and abundances based on epibenthic sledge samples, there is no clear relationship between Antarctic deep-sea gastropod abundance and species richness with depth. However, both Antarctic and adjacent deep-sea areas are still far from being adequately sampled to allow more comprehensive conclusions.
Paul O. Alford 88, of Aurora, Indiana, passed away Sunday October 21, 2018 at Forest Park Health Campus in Richmond, Indiana.He was born April 30, 1930 in St Louis , MO, son of the late Murray Alford and Elenor Alice (Kemp) Alford.Paul was raised in Elkhart, Indiana and was a 1948 graduate of Elkhart High School. He enlisted in the U.S. Air Force in 1950 during the Korean War.In 1954 Paul began his career in law enforcement as an Indiana State Trooper and moved to Aurora. In 1974 Paul retired from the ISP as Detective Sergeant. Paul continued his life of public service as Mayor of Aurora, Indiana for two terms. He and his wife, Jacquline were co-owners of Alford’s Coins. He loved Aurora, “River City” and believed it to be one of the most beautiful and historically rich areas of America.Paul was a member of the Aurora Masonic Lodge, Aurora American Legion and the FOP. Paul attended the Aurora First Presbyterian Church.Paul is survived by his sons, Gilbert Alford of Richmond, VA. Lee Williams of Duluth, GA, Tim Alford of Muncie, IN; daughter, Jerrilyn (Bill) Longcamp of West Chester, OH; brother, William Moore of Elkhart, IN; sister, Mary (Orin) Kilmer of Monroe, OH; grandchildren, Kyle, Lisa, Kelsey, Lauren, Evan, Hanna, Emily, Sam and Jacob; 15 great grandchildren and several nieces and nephews.He was preceded in death by his parents, loving wife of 46 years, Jacquline E. (Speckman) Alford, a brother and two sisters.Friends will be received Friday, October 26, 2018, 4:00 pm – 8:00 pm at the First Presbyterian Church Aurora, 215 Fourth Street, Aurora, Indiana.Services will be held at the church on Saturday October 27, 2018 at 11:00 am with Pastor Dana Stout officiating.Interment will follow in the River View Cemetery, Aurora,, Indiana. Military graveside services will be conducted by members of local Veterans Service Organizations.Contributions may be made to the Hillforest Historical Society. If unable to attend services, please call the funeral home office at (812) 926-1450 and we will notify the family of your donation with a card.Visit: www.rullmans.com